The doctrine called for the Amerindians who abided by these demands to be considered “loyal vassals,” but justified war against the Amerindians if they opposed the Spaniards’ power and allowed for an aggressive conquest, resulting in the Amerindians being “deprived of their liberty and property.”[3][4] The Requerimiento briefly alludes to the enslavement of the Amerindians as a result of the Spaniards' militaristic conquest of the region.[5]. The number of religious holidays was reduced and several holidays to commemorate national events introduced. King, Judy. The Catholic faith of Latin America is one of the great trump cards of the Church, at least in theory. In 1493, just one year after Columbus’s famous voyage, Pope Alexander VI published a bull dividing the new territory between Spain and Portugal—provided the natives were converted to Catholicism. What gave Latin American liberals and liberalism a clear identityaround the mid-nineteenth century was their opposition to anadversary. "[40], One theory is that the Virgin of Guadalupe was presented to the Aztecs as a sort of "Christianized" Tonantzin, necessary for the clergymen to convert the indigenous people to their faith. In May 17, 2016, Mexican president Enrique Peña Nieto, presented to congress a series of initiatives aimed at promoting greater inclusion and equality in defense of the LGBT community. Richard Palmer It helped to spur the conquest of the New World with its emphasis on missions to the indigenous peoples, controlled many aspects of the colonial economy, and played key roles in the … Catholicism has been predominant in Latin America and it has played a definitive role in its development. "'Undocumented Virgin.' [47] Other laws attacked the privileges traditionally enjoyed by the military, which was significant since the military had been instrumental in putting and keeping Mexican governments in office since Emperor Agustín de Iturbide in the 1820s. [19][20][21] Over the next 150 years, missions expanded into southwestern North America. Archbishop Lázaro de la Garza in Mexico City condemned the Law as an attack on the Church itself, and clerics went into rebellion in the city of Puebla in 1855–56. [50][55] It appears that ten states were left without any priests.[55]. With the use of Indian labour, the reductions became economically successful. [12] Although the missionaries focused on the “conversion,” the friars also worked to educate the Amerindians about Spanish cultural expectations, social customs, and about “political organization through the mission system. In the 1960s, growing social awareness and politicization in the Latin American Church gave birth to liberation theology which openly supported anti-imperialist movements. Historical data suggest that for most of the 20th century, from 1900 through the 1960s, at least 90% of Latin America’s population was Catholic (See History … Beginning in the 1820s, a succession of liberal regimes came to power in Latin America. What resulted was a new form of “Popular Catholicism, meaning Christianity created by the people.” (Jacobsen, 79) The Latin American Independence movements of the 19 th century made a shift in the religious sphere, but not as dramatic as the revolutionary enlightenment ideals that flourished in the United States. The conflict claimed the lives of some 90,000: 56,882 on the federal side, 30,000 Cristeros, and numerous civilians and Cristeros who were killed in anticlerical raids after the war's end. A long history of anti-Catholicism Although Catholicism was an influential factor in the French settlements of the Ohio and Mississippi valleys and later in the Spanish regions of Florida, the Southwest and California, Catholics were a decided minority in the original 13 English colonies. … He argued that the Spanish colonists’ should avoid continuing to make harsh labor demands of Amerindians by noting how the native people did “not even have time to look after their subsistence” and would “die of hunger.”[31], Bartolome de Las Casas, another famed Dominican friar, also defended the Amerindians' rights and opposed the Spaniards’ view of the indigenous people as “barbarians” as an acceptable justification to massacre the indigenous population. Having been ruled by the Spanish and Portuguese starting in the 1500s, both nations emphasized religiosity and incorporated the Church into government decisions and policies, from land distribution, to conversion and education. More than 90 percent of the population self-identified as Catholic. Over a thousand people were executed in Lima, Peru, alone. However, by bringing Western civilization to the area, these missions and the Spanish government have been held responsible for wiping out nearly a third of the native population, primarily through disease. [2], The Requerimiento of 1512 served as a legal doctrine mandating that the Amerindians accept the Spanish monarch’s power over the region and Christianity. Roman Catholicism is the major religion of nearly every country in Latin America. A good third of all Catholic Christians of this globe live between the Rio Grande and Fireland. It was conceived of as a moderate measure, rather than abolish church courts altogether. Lopez, Lydia. However, in 1955, overthrown by a military general who was a leading member of the Catholic Nationalist movement. It helped to spur the conquest of the New World with its emphasis on missions to the indigenous peoples, controlled many aspects of the colonial economy, and played key roles in the struggles for Independence. [6][7][8] King Ferdinand enacted the Laws of Burgos and Valladolid in response. Later reductions were extended into the areas that correspond to Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia and Uruguay. This pre-existing role of religion in pre-Columbian culture made it relatively easy for the Spanish conquistadors to replace native religious structures with those of a Catholicism that was closely linked to the Spanish throne.[42]. A year later, Juan Diego was canonized by Pope John Paul II. Philadelphia Church of God, All Rights Reserved. Guadalupe is often considered a mixture of the cultures which blend to form Mexico, both racially[36] and religiously[37] Guadalupe is sometimes called the "first mestiza"[38] or "the first Mexican". Many histories of Christianity give no more than a chapter to the history of Latin America. This can be attributed in large part to the lingering effects of Spanish and Portuguese colonization of the region and the Roman Catholic missions that accompanied those endeavours. On December 1511, the Dominican friar Antonio de Montesinos openly rebuked the Spanish authorities governing Hispaniola for their mistreatment of the American natives, telling them "... you are in mortal sin ... for the cruelty and tyranny you use in dealing with these innocent people". By 1767, the Portuguese, Spanish and French had grown distrustful of the power of the Jesuits. "Our Lady of Guadalupe. It is important that students recognize that the history of the Catholic Church in Latin America was not merely an adjunct to the conquest or a side issue in the later independence movement but, rather that the history of the conquest and the history of the Church, itself are completely intertwined.

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