Crowds of exiles rallied for war against the infidel. The defeat led to the overthrow of the Ottomans by Turkish nationalists led by the victorious general of the Battle of Gallipoli: Mustafa Kemal, who became known to his people as Atatürk, "Father of the Turks." He was also faced with a revolt by Zayd ibn Ali. The dynasty is named after its first sultan Idris I.  This began the Ayyubid Sultanate of Egypt and Syria. Sulayman sent Maslama ibn Abd al-Malik to attack the Byzantine capital (siege of Constantinople). Some Muslim countries, such as Turkey and Egypt, sought to separate Islam from the secular government. , Nowadays, the popularity of the different methods employed varies on the scope of the works under consideration. The regional Sultanate and Emirate governors' existence, validity, or legality were acknowledged for unity of the state.  The descendants of Muhammad's uncle Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib rallied discontented mawali, poor Arabs, and some Shi'a against the Umayyads and overthrew them with the help of the general Abu Muslim, inaugurating the Abbasid dynasty in 750, which moved the capital to Baghdad. Al-Mu'tazz was brutally deposed shortly thereafter. The Turks were staunch Sunnis. The last name Ikhshid is Soghdian for "prince". Al-Wathiq dealt with opposition in Arabia, Syria, Palestine and in Baghdad. Also, it features Live Help through chat. R. N. Frye (1975). Muslims gather at mosques to worship Allah, pray, and study scripture. Muslim rulers were in Kanem starting from sometime between 1081 and 1097, with reports of a Muslim prince at the head of Gao as early as 1009. At the end of the Early Baghdad Abbasids period, Empress Zoe Karbonopsina pressed for an armistice with Al-Muqtadir and arranged for the ransom of the Muslim prisoner while the Byzantine frontier was threatened by Bulgarians.  For example, the most important historiographical source for the origins of Islam is the work of al-Tabari. Ar-Rashid fled to Isfahan and was killed by Hashshashins.. Some of the taifas, such as that of Seville, were forced to enter into alliances with Christian princes and pay tributes in money to Castille..  The surahs of this period emphasized his place among the long line of Biblical prophets, but also differentiated the message of the Quran from Christianity and Judaism. The jihad and the creation of the caliphate For dan Fodio, the main reason for the jihad was the purification of Islam in territories which were already Muslim at the beginning of the nineteenth century. Owing to the Abbasid inquisitions, the forefathers opted for concealment of the Dawa's existence. Originally a soldier in the service of the Ziyārīds of Ṭabaristān, 'Alī was able to recruit an army to defeat a Turkish general from Baghdad named Yāqūt in 934. Islam spreads to the West with mass migrations from Asia, Africa, and India. Under the Fatimids, Egypt became the center of an empire that included at its peak North Africa, Sicily, Palestine, Lebanon, Syria, the Red Sea coast of Africa, Yemen and the Hejaz. Islam is thus the youngest of the great world religions.  Later generations would count this event, known as the hijra, as the start of the Islamic era. To the east, Mongol forces under Hulagu Khan swept through the Transoxiana and Khorasan. In 1260, the Mongols sacked Aleppo and wrested control of what remained of the Ayyubid territories soon after. Tariq's commander, Musa bin Nusair crossed with substantial reinforcements, and by 718 the Muslims dominated most of the peninsula. The rulers of Mosul and Cilician Armenia surrendered. He was later found murdered. Quick Fact Sources include www.adherents.com, www.bbc.co.uk/religion, The Oxford Handbook of Global Religions (2006), The Encyclopedia of Religion (2005), the Religious Movements Page at the University of Virginia, The Cambridge Illustrated History of Religions (2002), and the Encyclopedia of World Religions (1999). Though despised by the people, Al-Muqtadir was again placed in power after upheavals. p. 35, The preaching of Islam: a history of the propagation of the Muslim faith By Sir Thomas Walker Arnold, pp. Dubays was crushed by a Seljuq army under Zengi, founder of the Zengid dynasty. With Muhammad's death in 632, disagreement broke out over who would succeed him as leader of the Muslim community during the Rashidun Caliphate. , With the election of Khan Mongke in 1251, the Mongols targeted the Abbasid capital, Baghdad. The Islamic Golden Age gave rise to many centers of culture and science and produced notable polymaths, astronomers, mathematicians, physicians and philosophers during the Middle Ages. These imperial powers were made possible by the discovery and exploitation of gunpowder and more efficient administration. The jihad and the creation of the caliphate For dan Fodio, the main reason for the jihad was the purification of Islam in territories which were already Muslim at the beginning of the nineteenth century. While the full formation of a distinctive Islamic artistic language took several centuries, the seeds were sown during the Prophet’s time. 1947: Pakistan founded as an Islamic nation. Chamber's Encyclopaedia: A Dictionary of Universal Knowledge, Volume 5. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Religious Movements Page at the University of Virginia. Al-Mustadi reigned when Saladin become the sultan of Egypt and declared allegiance to the Abbasids. The Arabic word for God …  Under the Abbasids Islamic civilization flourished. The Islamic prophet Muhammad is thought to have been born around the year 570 and Muslims believe that he began receiving revelations from God (Allah) at the age of 40. He appointed Yazid ibn al-Muhallab governor of Mesopotamia. Bahadur issued a firman supporting the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Similar dynasties included the Saffarids, Samanids, Ghaznavids and Seljuqs. It’s been widely accepted that the Islamic religion began during the first part of the seventh century in the geographical areas of Mecca and Medina. , The Fatimids originated in Ifriqiya (modern-day Tunisia and eastern Algeria). Unlike other governments in the area, Fatimid advancement in state offices was based more on merit than heredity. In Yazid's reign, civil wars began in different parts of the empire. Egypt continued to be unquiet.  Islam recognized to a certain extent the validity of the Abrahamic religions, the Quran identifying Jews, Christians, Zoroastrians, and "Sabi'un" or "baptists" (usually taken as a reference to the Mandeans and related Mesopotamian groups) as "people of the book". The plague began in China, and reached Alexandria in Egypt in 1347, spreading over the following years to most Islamic areas.  In the early Islamic philosophy of the Iberian Umayyads, Averroes presented an argument in The Decisive Treatise, providing a justification for the emancipation of science and philosophy from official Ash'ari theology; thus, Averroism has been considered a precursor to modern secularism. Origin/Restoration of Islam: The name of the religion Islam is derived from the Arabic word "salam," which is often interpreted as meaning "peace." He was effective in addressing these problems, and in allowing the Umayyad empire to continue as an entity. Ibn Raik held the reins of government and his name was joined with the Caliph's in public prayers. ANSWER: Historically, Islam began in Arabia in the Middle East. Certain Iranian exiles also helped convince Saddam that if he invaded, the fledgling Islamic republic would quickly collapse. , Differing views about how to deal with the available sources has led to the development of four different approaches to the history of early Islam. After Egypt, the Fatimids continued to conquer the surrounding areas until they ruled from Tunisia to Syria, as well as Sicily.  The future successes of the Ottomans and later empires would depend upon the exploitation of gunpowder. His government was marked by continuous wars between Arabs, Berbers and Muladi. This was likely because al-Andalus was a land besieged by many different loyalties, and the proclamation of caliph would have likely caused much unrest. Al Hijra: The Islamic New Year begins on the day Muhammad left Mecca to travel to Medina. 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